WHAT IS MASSAGE?
Massage is a “hands-on” therapy in which muscles and other soft tissues of the body are manipulated to improve health and well-being. Varieties of massage range from gentle stroking and kneading of muscles and other soft tissues to deeper manual techniques. Massage has been practiced as a healing therapy for centuries in nearly every culture around the world. It helps relieve muscle tension, reduce stress, and evoke feelings of calmness. Although massage affects the body as a whole, it particularly influences the activity of the musculoskeletal, circulatory, lymphatic, and nervous systems.
WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF MASSAGE?
The use of massage for healing purposes dates back 4,000 years in Chinese medical literature and continues to be an important aspect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) today. A contemporary form of massage known as Swedish massage was introduced to the United States in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, a significant number of American doctors were practicing this massage technique and the nation’s first massage therapy clinics opened its doors to the public.
In the early 20th century, the rise of technology and prescription drugs began to overshadow massage therapy. For the next several decades, massage remained dormant and only a few therapists continued to practice the “ancient” technique. During the 1970s, however, both the general public as well as the medical profession began to take notice of alternative medicine and mind-body therapies, which thrust massage therapy back into the limelight. Today, there are more than 125,000 massage therapists practicing in the United States and their numbers are growing rapidly to keep up with the more than 80 million massage therapy appointments made every year.
ARE THERE MANY TYPES OF MASSAGE?
There are nearly 100 different massage and body work techniques. Each technique is uniquely designed to achieve a specific goal. The most common types practiced in the United States include:
Aromatherapy massage: Essential oils from plants are massaged into the skin in order to enhance the healing and relaxing effects of massage. Essential oils are believed to have a powerful effect on mood by stimulating two structures deep in the brain known to store emotions and memory. (See the Aromatherapy monograph for more details)
Craniosacral massage: Gentle pressure is applied to the head and spine to correct imbalances and restore the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in these areas.
Lymphatic massage: Light, rhythmic strokes are used to improve the flow of lymph (colorless fluid that helps fight infection and disease) throughout the body. One of the most popular forms of lymphatic massage, Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD), focuses on draining excess lymph. MLD is commonly used after surgery (such as a mastectomy for breast cancer) to reduce swelling.
Myofascial release: Gentle pressure and body positioning are used to relax and stretch the muscles, fascia (connective tissue), and related structures. Both physical therapists and massage therapists who are appropriately trained use this technique.
On-site/chair massage: Popular in offices and other public places, on-site massage therapists use a portable chair to deliver brief, upper body massages to fully-clothed people.
Polarity therapy: A form of energy healing, polarity therapists stimulate and balance the flow of energy within the body to enhance health and well-being.
Reflexology: Specialized thumb and finger techniques are applied to the hands and/or feet. Reflexologists believe that these areas contain “reflex points” or direct connections to specific organs and structures throughout the body.
Rolfing: Pressure is applied to the fascia (connective tissue) to stretch it, lengthen it, and make it more flexible. This goal of this technique is to realign the body so that it conserves energy, releases tension, and functions better.
Shiatsu: Gentle finger and hand pressure are applied to specific points on the body to relieve pain and enhance the flow of energy (known as qi) through the body’s energy pathways (called meridians). Shiatsu is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
Sports massage: Often used on professional athletes and other active individuals, sports massagecan enhance performance and prevent and treat sports-related injuries.
Swedish massage: A variety of strokes and pressure techniques are used to enhance the flow of blood to the heart, remove waste products from the tissues, stretch ligaments and tendons, and ease physical and emotional tension.
Trigger point massage: Pressure is applied to “trigger points” (tender areas where the muscles have been damaged) to alleviate muscle spasms and pain.
HOW DOES MASSAGE WORK?
When a practitioner massages soft tissue, electrical signals are transmitted both to the local area and throughout the body. These signals help heal damaged muscle, stimulate circulation, clear waste products via the lymphatic system, boost the activity of the immune system, reduce pain and tension, and induce a calming effect. They may also enhance a general sense of well-being by stimulating the release of endorphins (natural pain-killers and mood elevators) and reducing levels of certain stress hormones.
WHAT HAPPENS DURING A MASSAGE THERAPY SESSION?
At your first massage therapy session, the practitioner will ask you about any symptoms you may have (like low back pain) and will also ask questions about your medical history. The practitioner may also initiate a discussion about what you expect to achieve from the massage session.
The therapist leaves the room while you undress and lay down on the massage table. A sheet is used as a drape during the session and is moved only to expose the part of the body being worked on at any given time. Massage oil or lotion is often used to reduce friction between the practitioner’s hands and your skin. The room is kept warm and free of distractions. The therapist may have soft music playing in the background and frequently asks whether he or she is applying too much or too little pressure.
WHAT IS MASSAGE GOOD FOR?
In general, massage is believed to support healing, boost energy, reduce recovery time after an injury, ease pain, and enhance relaxation, mood, and well-being. In addition to being of value for many musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and sprains and strains, massage may relieve depression in people with chronic fatigue syndrome, ease chronic constipation (when the technique is performed in the abdominal area), decrease swelling after a mastectomy (removal of the breast), alleviate sleep disorders, and improve self-image. In the workplace, massage has been shown to melt away stress and enhance mental alertness.
Studies have found that massage relieves chronic back pain more effectively than other treatments (including acupuncture and conventional medical care for this condition with education via books and videos) and, in many cases, costs less than other treatments for this common health problem. In addition, mothers and newborns also appear to benefit from massage. Mothers trained to massage their infants often feel less depressed and have a better emotional bond with their babies. Newborns who receive massage from their mothers also tend to cry less, and are more active, alert, and sociable. Premature babies who receive massage therapy have been shown to gain weight faster than preemies who do not receive this type of therapy. Infants who receive massage regularly may also sleep better, be less gassy or colicky, and have better body awareness as well as more regular digestion.